직장암 - Rectal Cancer

대장은 위와 소장을 연결해주는 기관입니다직장은  대장의 마지막 끝부분이며길이는  12​​cm 정도 입니다대장에서 발생하는 모든 암의  20 % 직장에서 발생합니다.

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직장암 발생시 출혈  가장 흔한 증상입니다다른 빈번한 증상은 배변습관의변화와 복통 입니다.

직장 암의 진단은 대장내시경검사를 필요로 합니다일단  진단이 조직검사로확인되면 CT 촬영검사로 암의 진전상태  병기를 평가하게 됩니다또한내시경적 초음파 검사로 암의 근접기관의 침투상황을 평가하기도 합니다동시에 일반 혈액 검사와CEA라고 불리우는  수치도 검토하게 됩니다.

직장 암의 병기는단계로 나누어 거론 됩니다암이 직장에 국한되어 있는 경우  1 기로 판정됩니다. 2   직장암은 암이 직장벽을 침입하였거나 근접장기로진전된것을 의미 합니다. 3  직장암은  세포가 직장벽 밖으로 진전되어 임파선까지 퍼진것을  뜻합니다.  4 직장암    이나  같은 다른 먼장기에 퍼진것을 말해줍니다.
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직장암 환자의 예후는 암의 병기에 비례하기 때문에 병기를 검토하는것이 중요합니다예를 들어, 1 직장  환자의 경우 74 %가량이  생존을 기대할수있습니다반면에, 4 환자는  생존율이 6% 정도밖에 되지 않습니다.

직장 암의 치료는 수술방사선 치료 항암치료로 이루어 집니다암이 직장벽에 국한되어 전이되지 않은 1 환자에게는 절개 수술이 가장 효과적입니다.암이 전이  경우에는 항암  방사선 치료로 암을 축소 시킨후 수술을 하게 됩니다수술방법은 암의 정확한 위치크기  침투심도에 따라 좌우됩니다경우에 따라 최근에 개발된 Vectibix, Avastin Erbitux 등의 신항암제가 추가로 사용 되기도 합니다.

 

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